LEIDEN - MAYFLOWER 400
A Cycle Holiday to Leiden 2022 (dates to be confirmed)
Cycling to P&O North Sea Ferries Ltd, Hull Ferry Terminal 1, King George Dock, Hedon Road, Hull, HU9 5PS: FREE
Parking at P&O North Sea Ferries Ltd, Hull Ferry Terminal 1, King George Dock, Hedon Road, Hull, HU9 5PS:
£8 per 24 hour period (total Mon- Fri £32)
Ferry bookings from six months prior to departure date.
P&O North Sea Ferry, 5 day return PREMIER ticket single occupancy: Approximately £400 per person (£200 each way)
P&O North Sea Ferry, 5 day return PREMIER ticket based on 2 people sharing: Approximately £260 per person (£140 each way)
(PREMIER: fully flexible ticket with free alteration, cancellation and full refund, buffet dinners and full breakfasts included
(valued at £55 each way), free Wi-Fi, Premier outside cabin, bicycle carriage)
A STANDARD, non flexible, non refundable basic inside cabin with no meals based on 2 people sharing:
Approximately £160 per person (£80 each way)
Hotel Accommodation Leiden:
Ferry on the cycle route
Maasvlakte - Hoek van Holland Ferry (hourly catamaran Fast Ferry passenger and cycle service which takes about 25 minutes) on the North Sea Cycle Route LF1b: Approximately £3 one way
Alternatively the Maassluis - Rozenburg Ferry (every 20 minutes) if following LF12a to Hoek van Holland: £?
Travel to P&O North Sea Ferries Ltd, Hull Ferry Terminal 1, King George Dock, Hedon Road, Hull, HU9 5PS
Ship sails 20:30. Last check-in 19:00 although you can usually board from about 16:30.
Travel by bike or car. Multistory car park right next door to ferry terminal.
Ferry arrives Europoort approximately 08.15 am. Disembarkation approximately 08.45 am.
Cycle to Leiden. Various routes, but below a suggestion of 2 routes utilising the North Sea Long Distance Cycle Route:
Distance 45 miles. Route takes in the Maasvlakte, the massive man-made westward extension of the Europoort. A fast ferry is taken from here to Hoek Van Holland and is part of the North Sea Cycle Route. Continuing along the coast there'll be plenty of opportunities for refreshments as we head to Scheveningen, before heading inland to Den Haag. Following some typical Dutch cycle-ways and some cycle only routes, there's some fine tea and cake to be sampled at Theehuis, Jansland before arriving in Leiden. Dutch Apple cake and Koffie verkeerd please!
Distance 42 miles. This route takes us across the Scheur via a short ferry crossing to Masssluis. From here it's a ride to the coast north of Hoek Van Holland and a scenic route to Scheveningen, before heading inland to Den Haag. Plenty of opportunities to stop and enjoy refreshments. Following some typical Dutch cycle-ways and some cycle only routes, there's some fine tea and cake to be sampled at Theehuis, Jansland before arriving in Leiden.
Book into either Ibis Leiden Centre or Tulip Inn Leiden Centre. Both have secure cycle storage.
A day free to do whatever you want. Leiden is the second biggest city in the Netherlands and has a wealth of places to see, museums to visit and things to do. There are self guided walks specifically aimed at Mayflower 400 celebrations and Rembrandt (who was born here). The University (celebrating it's 444th anniversary) has a world renowned Botanical Gardens whilst you can also take a boat rip around the canals or perhaps take a longer excursion into the network of nearby lakes. A day is not enough!
Alternatively back on the bike for a scenic ride around the lakes:
SHORT: 22 miles. View and download route HERE
MEDIUM: 31 miles. View and download route HERE
LONG: 38 miles. View and download route HERE
Cycle to Europoort. This time a route away from the coast, taking in the historic city of Delft.
Distance 34 miles. This route takes in a scenic ride alongside the Vlietland Park and 'polders' before arriving in the historic city of Delft. Plenty of time to explore and take refreshments. Continuing on to Maasslius to catch the Maassluis - Rozenburg Ferry which runs every 20 minutes.
Arrive in Europoort in time to board the P&O ferry to Hull.
Ship sails 20:30. Last check-in 19:00 although you can usually board from about 16:30.
Ferry arrives Hull approximately 07:30 am with disembarkation about 08:00 am.
History of Leiden
A university city since 1575, Leiden has been one of Europe's most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. It is twinned with Oxford (where there is evidence of teaching as early as 1096).
Leiden was formed on an artificial hill (today called the Burcht van Leiden) at the confluence of the rivers Oude and Nieuwe Rijn (Old and New Rhine) and was given city status in 1266. The city was besieged and sacked in 1420 by Duke John III of Bavaria along with his army from Gouda as a result of a failure to pay taxes.
There was a further siege in 1574 by the Spanish. In 1572, the city sided with the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule and played an important role in the Eighty Years' War. Besieged from May until October 1574 by the Spanish, Leiden was relieved by the cutting of the dikes, thus enabling ships to carry provisions to the inhabitants of the flooded town. As a reward for the heroic defence of the previous year, the University of Leiden was founded by William I of Orange in 1575. Yearly, on 3 October, the end of the siege is still celebrated in Leiden. Tradition tells that the citizens were offered the choice between a university and a certain exemption from taxes and chose the university. The siege is notable also for being the first instance in Europe of the issuance of paper money, with paper taken from prayer books being stamped using coin dies when silver ran out.
The city flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries with wealth generated from weaving and the cloth trade. During the Dutch Golden Era, Leiden was the second largest city of Holland after Amsterdam, the English Separatists forming part of the many immigrants that were encouraged to settle after the huge loss of life following the Spanish siege.
The Kort Galgewater is a historic port. This section of the Rhine takes its name from the gallows (galgen) where criminals were once hanged
The Mayflower Connection. Leiden and the English Dissenters or English Separatists (Pilgrim Fathers)
The Anglican Church
During the 16th century, Henry VIII was king of England. When his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, failed to bear him a son, Henry sought to have their marriage annulled. When the Pope refused to annul the marriage, Henry broke with the Church of Rome and started the Anglican Church. Many people felt that there were still too many similarities with the Church of Rome, and demanded greater reforms. Some even wished to ‘purify’ the Anglican Church of all Catholic rituals. They became known as the Puritans. Others called for a break with the existing church, and became known as the Separatists. However, Henry VIII had decreed that all citizens were required to follow the state religion: the Anglican Church. Those who did not, would face prosecution. By the time King James I ascended the throne in 1603, the situation had become more tense.
Many of the Separatists came from Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. William Brewster was one of them. It is believed that Brewster founded a Separatist church in his family home, Scrooby Manor. Brewster strongly influenced a local young man, William Bradford. Bradford’s diary, Of Plimoth Plantation, is an account of his group’s story, including their persecution in England which made it impossible for them to lead a peaceful life.
John Smyth, the minister of different Separatist group from Gainsborough, decided that he and his congregation would emigrate in pursuit of freedom of religion. However, leaving England without permission was punishable, and so they quietly slipped away from Gainsborough and re-emerged in Amsterdam.
The Scrooby congregation also chanced an escape to the Netherlands via Boston, Lincolnshire. During the Autumn of 1607 they secretly travelled to Scotia Creek, near Boston, where they had chartered a boat to smuggle them out of the country. To their horror, they came to realise they had been betrayed by the captain. They were seized and imprisoned in Boston. After a month of captivity, most of them were released.
Nevertheless, the Scrooby Separatists were not deterred. The next year, they travelled North to board a ship in Immingham. Once again, they were pursued. Though this time, the men succeeded in fleeing to the Netherlands. The women and children were aboard a different boat, which was seized. In the end, they were released and reunited in Amsterdam.
At the time of the Separatists’ arrival in Amsterdam in the Netherlands, the so-called Twelve Years’ Truce had just been signed. The truce made a temporary end to the hostilities between Spain and the Netherlands, and marked the start of a relatively calm period. Following a disagreement with the John Smyth group, the Scrooby group moved from Amsterdam to Leiden. Their pastor, John Robinson, sent a message to Leiden, requesting to admit some hundred men and women into the city. The city authorities agreed to welcome them, on the condition that they would abide by the rules.
They started a new life in the tolerant city of Leiden. They remained a close-knit community, and many of the group lived together, married among themselves and worked together. Many of them found a job in the flourishing textile industry. Their children were baptised at the Pieterskerk, the Hooglandse Kerk or the Vrouwekerk, as they were not permitted to have a church building of their own. They would often gather at John Robinson’s house, located next to the Pieterskerk.
Life in Leiden was tough for the Separatists. They came from rural England and were not accustomed to the urban setting they found themselves in. Many of them found it hard to adjust to the changes in their work, and earned very little. The parents among them also worried about their children losing touch with their English roots under the influence of the Dutch.
After some 12 years, close to the end of the Twelve Years’ Truce, a number of Separatists were determined it was time to move again. They contacted the congregation which had remained in England, and decided they would all travel to Virginia, America to set up a new community there. They would found a new town where they could live and practise their religion as they wished.
They realised it would be an expensive journey. In order to raise the money they needed, the Separatists made a deal with the Virginia Company, a business with the objective to establish colonies in North America. The Company needed people to populate the colonies and send them trading goods. The Separatists would work hard to pay back the money invested by the Company.
The Separatists in the Netherlands sold their personal belongings in order to purchase a ship named the Speedwell. In August 1620, they sailed away from Delfshaven to England where they had arranged to meet the Mayflower. A small part of the group remained in Leiden. For a small minority like the 'Pilgrims' it was difficult to maintain their own language, religion and habits. There were several marriages with Walloons, who had similar religious viewpoints. After many of the 'Pilgrims' had left for America
it proved impossible to remain a clearly defined community. After their own preacher Robinson died, the people left behind in Leiden joined Dutch churches and after 1630, the English reformed church. Finally the group merged with the Leiden population.
THE VOYAGE TO AMERICA
The English group had chartered a ship named the Mayflower, an armed merchant vessel boasting three masts that were 30 metres tall and up to 7,5 metres in width. The ship had been built in Harwich and was under the command of captain Christopher Jones. In 1611, Jones decided to leave Harwich and head for a more southerly location, one mile downstream from the Tower of London at the Thames.
Many of the dissidents from London had fled to the Netherlands, though some of them continued their secret gatherings in England. In 1620 they received permission to travel to America. They joined the Mayflower and sailed to Southampton, where they were due to meet the Speedwell.
There were some concerns about the Speedwell, as it had sustained damage an was taking on water. However, the Speedwell was repaired and on 15 August, the two ships weighed the anchor and hoisted the sails.
Soon after the two ships had set sail, the Speedwell started to take on water again. Some believe too many sails had been hoisted, which caused an immense amount of pressure on the entire structure, others say sabotage by the reluctant crew was to blame. They diverted their course to Dartmouth in Devon. Here, it took the harbour labourers approximately one week to repair the damage.
Unfortunately, the second attempt proved equally unsuccessful.
The Mayflower and the Speedwell had sailed 500 kilometres beyond Land’s End, the westernmost point in mainland England, when the smaller of the two vessels was found to be taking on considerable amounts of water. Sailing on was deemed too risky, and so they turned back to Plymouth. By this time, the passengers on board had spent six wretched, dank weeks in a confined space at sea and had made virtually no progress at all. Had their luck not changed for the worse, they could have been well near their destination at this point in time.
The Speedwell was declared unseaworthy. Consequently, a number of Pilgrims gave up, and the rest of the group crowded aboard the Mayflower. They were in need of provisions, but funds were running low.
Saints and Strangers
On 16 September, the ship set sail with approximately 30 crew and 102 passengers on board. Almost half of them were Separatists, or “Saints”. They had chosen this name to emphasize the fact that they were part of a specific group with particular views. All others were referred to as “Strangers”, as this is how the Saints regarded anyone who was not part of their group. The Strangers were a group of skilled workers who were sent along by the investors to help build the colony.
The Mayflower passengers lived in a cramped space. Many of them were hungry and suffered dire living conditions, and this was only the beginning of their ordeal. The situation worsened when the ship was blown off course by winter storms. Although the Mayflower was bound for Virginia, the ship landed in Cape Cod on 21 November 1620.
On this date, the settlers drew up the Mayflower Compact. This document, signed by 41 men aboard the Mayflower, was an agreement stating they would cooperate “for the general good of the colony”. It established constitutional law and the rule of the majority. Issues would be decided by voting. The Mayflower Compact can be regarded as the foundation of American democracy.
Some days later, Susannah White gave birth to a son aboard the Mayflower: the first English child to be born in New England. His parents named him Peregrine, derived from the latin word for “pilgrim”.
Their need for fresh water and fertile land led a group of Pilgrims to go ashore and explore the area for the first time on 25 November. They spotted a small group of Native Americans and attempted to follow them, but they got lost in the forest and were hindered by the dense undergrowth. They decided to try a different route and came upon a patch of deforested land which had been used to grow corn. Besides the corn, they also found a number of graves. The village that once stood there, Patuxet, used to be inhabited by the Wampanoag, but it had been deserted after the outbreak of a disease.
The settlers did not expect to meet with resistance if they started their colony here. They left the bleak coast of Cape Cod and arrived in Plymouth Bay, Massachusetts on 26 December 1620.
Life was hard in this new land. The winter was severe and many of the passengers remained aboard the Mayfower. The ship became a sanctuary for the sick and those who were dying, many of them died of a combination of contagious diseases. By the end of the first winter, less than half of the crew and passengers were alive.
The colony feared they would be attacked by the Native Americans. Come February, captain Christopher Jones ordered the ship’s cannons to be moved to the mainland. Each cannon must have weighed almost half a tonne.
At the beginning of April, his crew was finally on the mend, and Jones sailed the Mayflower back to England. They made it back in less than half the time it took to make the journey to America.
The Wampanoag inhabited the area where the Pilgrims landed. Each tribe had its own territory where they would fish, hunt and harvest. Their hunting grounds had strict boundaries, as certain areas were very densely populated. The Wampanoag were skilled at cultivating the land, and moved from one area to another in order to maximise their harvest. During the summer, they would stay near the coast, and during wintertime they would move further inland, into the forests.
The Wampanoag had been in contact with Europeans before. During the 16th century, European merchant ships had sailed to the American East Coast. As a means to increase their profits, the captains would capture Native Americans and sell them as slaves. In 1641, captain Thomas Hunt captured a great number of Wampanoag and sold them in Spain. One of them, Squanto, was purchased by Spanish monks. They tried to convert him, but in the end, they released him.
In the years prior to the landing of the Mayflower, the Wampanoag had been attacked by neighbouring tribes and they had lost areas of land along the coast. Subsequently, between 1616 and 1619, up 90% of the population died during an epidemic. It is likely that the diseases were brought to America by the Europeans. The settlers were more or less immune, whereas the native population was extremely susceptible to the diseases.
In March 1621, an English-speaking Native American called Samoset entered the Plymouth colony and introduced himself. According to reports, he asked if they had any beer, and he spent the night talking to the settlers. He returned some time later to introduce Squanto to the Pilgrims. Squanto spoke better English than Samoset. They arranged a meeting with Massasoit, the leader of the Wampanoag tribe.
From this moment, a relationship between the Wampanoag and the Pilgrims started to develop. The Wampanoag taught the Pilgrims to hunt and to grow crops, and they started trading fur. Squanto stayed with the Pilgrims, acting as an adviser and interpreter, to secure safe and sound relationships with other local tribes.
During the Autumn of 1621, the settlers and the Wampanoag celebrated a successful and rich harvest together, the festivities lasted three days. We now look back on this event as the first Thanksgiving.
The Narragansett, another Native American tribe, had not been affected by the epidemic and were a powerful tribe. The Narragansett forced the Wampanoag to pay tribute to them by submitting valuable goods. Massasoit of the Wampanoag formed an alliance with the English of the Plymouth colony to help the Wampanoag repel the attacks of the Narragansett.
In 1621, the Narragansett sent the Plymouth colony a threat in the shape of a bundle of arrows wrapped in a snakeskin. William Bradford, the Plymouth colony governor, responded to this threat by filling the snakeskin with bullets and gun powder, and sending it back. The message was clear, and the Narragansett did not proceed to attack.
American customs from Leiden
The Pilgrims brought a number of customs from Leiden to their new settlement. One of these customs is civil marriage. In the early days, they had no-one who could conduct church weddings, so civil marriage was a good alternative. They also adopted Leiden’s administrative structure of small, self-regulatory districts. Last but not least, it is believed that the first Thanksgiving was inspired by the annual “Leidens Ontzet” celebration.